Cardiomyopathy carnitine treatment mitochondrial dysfunction

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Cardiomyopathy carnitine treatment mitochondrial dysfunction

Berichtdoor Willy » Di Aug 26, 2003 12:29 pm

<H4>Carnitine--from cellular mechanisms to potential clinical applications in heart disease</H4><I>
A-4845 Atar D; Spiess M; Mandinova A; Cierpka H; Noll G; Luscher TF [Review] [24 refs]: European Journal of Clinical Investigation: 27:12:973-6 (1997)</I><BR>
This review deals with the cellular metabolic actions of carnitine and its potential role as a drug investigated in a number of clinical settings. It is not the aim of the present work to provide a comprehensive overview over the details of cellular metabolism or of all potential clinical applications, but rather to highlight the involvement in major metabolic pathways potentially relevant to clinical benefit.
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<H4>Increases in walking distance in patients with peripheral vascular disease treated with L-carnitine: a double-blind, cross-over study</H4><I>
G Brevetti, M Chiariello, G Ferulano, A Policicchio, E Nevola, A Rossini, T Attisano, G Ambrosio, N Siliprandi and C Angelini Department of Medicine, Second Medical School, University of Naples, Italy. </I><BR>
A double-blind, cross-over study was designed to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine in patients with peripheral vascular disease. After drug washout, 20 patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or L- carnitine (2 g bid, orally) for a period of 3 weeks and were then crossed over to the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. The effect on walking distance at the end of each treatment period was measured by treadmill test. Absolute walking distance rose from 174 +/- 63 m with placebo to 306 +/- 122 m (p less than .01) with carnitine. Biopsy of the ischemic muscle, carried out before and after 15 days of L-carnitine administration in four additional patients, showed that treatment significantly increased total carnitine levels. An additional goal of this study was to ascertain the effects of L-carnitine on the metabolic changes induced by exercise in the affected limb. In six patients under control conditions, arterial and popliteal venous lactate and pyruvate concentrations were determined at rest, when the maximal walking distance was reached, and 5 min after the walking test. Twenty-four hours later, L-carnitine was administered intravenously (3 g as a bolus followed by an infusion of 2 mg/kg/min for 30 min) and metabolic assessments were repeated. Five minutes after the walking test, popliteal venous lactate concentration increased by 107 +/- 16% before treatment and by only 54 +/- 32% (p less than .01) after carnitine. Furthermore, carnitine induced a more rapid recovery to the resting value of the lactate/pyruvate ratio.
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<H4>Primary systemic carnitine deficiency presenting as recurrent Reye-like syndrome and dilated cardiomyopathy</H4><I>
Hou JW. Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC.</I><BR>
Carnitine deficiency syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal but treatable metabolic disorder. I present a 6-year-old girl with primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD) proved by very low plasma carnitine level. Her major clinical features included neonatal metabolic acidosis, epilepsy, recurrent infections, acute encephalopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure before 4 years of age. Other features such as hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, or hyperammonemia were noted around 5 years of age. Her health improved with resolving cardiomyopathy after the use of L-carnitine (50-100 mg/kg/day). Patients with SCD have high morbidity and mortality. If SCD is suggested as a cause of Reye-like syndrome or dilated cardiomyopathy, L-carnitine therapy should be initiated as a diagnostic test immediately, until the definite diagnosis is confirmed.
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<H4>L-Carnitine: a potential treatment for blocking apoptosis and preventing skeletal muscle myopathy in heart failure</H4><I>
Vescovo G, Ravara B, Gobbo V, Sandri M, Angelini A, Della Barbera M, Dona M, Peluso G, Calvani M, Mosconi L, Dalla Libera L. Internal Medicine, City Hospital, 45011 Adria, Italy.</I><BR>
Skeletal muscle in congestive heart failure is responsible for increased fatigability and decreased exercise capacity. A specific myopathy with increased expression of fast-type myosins, myocyte atrophy, secondary to myocyte apoptosis triggered by high levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been described. In an animal model of heart failure, the monocrotaline-treated rat, we have observed an increase of apoptotic skeletal muscle nuclei. Proapoptotic agents, caspase-3 and -9, were increased, as well as serum levels of TNF-alpha and its second messenger sphingosine. Treatment of rats with L-carnitine, known for its protective effect on muscle metabolism injuries, was found to inhibit caspases and to decrease the levels of TNF-alpha and sphingosine, as well as the number of apoptotic myonuclei. Staurosporine was used in in vitro experiments to induce apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells in culture. When L-carnitine was applied to skeletal muscle cells, before staurosporine treatment, we observed a reduction in apoptosis. These findings show that L-carnitine can prevent apoptosis of skeletal muscles cells and has a role in the treatment of congestive heart failure-associated myopathy.
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<H4>Metabolic modulation and optimization of energy consumption in heart failure</H4><I>
Ferrari R, Cicchitelli G, Merli E, Andreadou I, Guardigli G. Dipartimento di Cardiologia, Universita di Ferrara, Arcispedale Sant'Anna, Ferrara, Italy.</I><BR>
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common and disabling syndrome with a poor prognosis. It is a major and increasing public health problem. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, and digitalis are the standards treatments for CHF. Other drugs, such as beta-blockers, spironolactone, calcium antagonists, vasodilators, and antiarrhythmic agents are used to counteract the progression of the syndrome or to improve the hemodynamic profile. Despite optimum treatment with neurohumoral antagonists, prognosis of CHF remains poor; the patients complain of persistent reductions in their exercise capacity and quality of life. Fatigue and shortness of breath, two common and disabling symptoms in patient with CHF, are relatively independent from hemodynamic and neuroendocrine changes, although they seem to be related to the impairment of peripheral muscle metabolism and energetic phosphate production. Therefore, CHF is a complex metabolic syndrome in which the metabolism of cardiac and peripheral muscles is impaired and novel therapeutic strategies have been aimed at positive modulation with compounds such as carnitine, trimetazidine, and ranolazine.
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<H4>Carnitine and its role in cardiovascular disease</H4><I>
Retter AS. Department of Medicine, Temple University Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140, USA.</I><BR>
L-carnitine and its derivative, propionyl-L-carnitine, are organic amines produced and metabolized endogenously. These compounds are essential in the process of fatty acid oxidation and have also been shown to reduce intracellular accumulation of toxic metabolites during ischemia. Currently, exogenous administration of carnitine is indicated only as therapy for primary and secondary carnitine deficiency. However, it has been hypothesized that because of its ability to enhance energy production and remove toxic metabolites during ischemia, carnitine therapy may be useful in the treatment of various cardiac diseases. In fact, there is increasing evidence that endogenous carnitine has beneficial effects in the treatment of congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, peripheral vascular disease, and acute ischemia.
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<H4>Propionyl-L-carnitine as protector against adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy</H4><I>
Sayed-Ahmed MM, Salman TM, Gaballah HE, Abou El-Naga SA, Nicolai R, Calvani M. Pharmacology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Fum El-Khalig, Kasr El-Aini Street, Cairo, Egypt.</I><BR>
Propionyl- l -carnitine (PLC) is a naturally occurring compound that has been considered for the treatment of many forms of cardiomyopathies. In this study, the possible mechanisms whereby PLC could protect against adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy were carried out. Administration of ADR (3 mg kg(-1)i.p., every other day over a period of 2 weeks) resulted in a significant two-fold increase in serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, whereas daily administration of PLC (250 mg kg(-1), i.p. for 2 weeks) induced non-significant change. Daily administration of PLC to ADR-treated rats resulted in complete reversal of ADR-induced increase in cardiac enzymes except lactate dehydrogenase which was only reversed by 66%. In cardiac tissue homogenate, ADR caused a significant 53% increase in malonedialdehyde (MDA) and a significant 50% decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, whereas PLC induced a significant 33% decrease in MDA and a significant 41% increase in GSH levels. Daily administration of PLC to ADR-treated rats completely reversed the increase in MDA and the decrease in GSH induced by ADR to the normal levels. In rat heart mitochondria isolated 24 h after the last dose, ADR induced a significant 48% and 42% decrease in(14)CO(2)released from the oxidation of [1-(14)C]palmitoyl-CoA and [1-(14)C]palmitoylcarnitine, respectively, whereas PLC resulted in a significant 66% and 54% increase in the oxidation of both substrates, respectively. Interestingly, administration of PLC to ADR-treated rats resulted in complete recovery of the ADR-induced decrease in the oxidation of both substrates. In addition, in rat heart mitochondria, the oxidation of [1-(14)C]pyruvate, [1-(14)C]pyruvate and [1-(14)C]octanoate were not affected by ADR and/or PLC treatment. Moreover, ADR caused severe histopathological lesions manifested as toxic myocarditis which is protected by PLC. Worth mentioning is that PLC had no effect on the antitumour activity of ADR in solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Results from this study suggest that: (1) in the heart, PLC therapy completely protects against ADR-induced inhibition of mitochondrial beta -oxidation of long-chain fatty acids; (2) PLC has and/or induces a powerful antioxidant defense mechanism against ADR-induced lipid peroxidation of cardiac membranes; and finally (3) PLC has no effect on the antitumour activity of ADR. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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<H4>Defective myocardial carnitine metabolism in congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and to coronary, hypertensive and valvular heart diseases</H4><I>
Regitz V, Shug AL, Fleck E. German Heart Institute, Berlin.</I><BR>
Reduced myocardial carnitine concentrations in the explanted heart and elevated plasma levels have been found in patients undergoing heart transplant for end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF). To evaluate a possible loss of myocardial carnitine in less severe stages of CHF, total myocardial carnitine levels were compared in right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies from 28 patients with mild, moderate and severe dilated cardiomyopathy, 8 patients with CHF of different origin and 13 normal control subjects. If possible, free myocardial carnitine and free and total plasma carnitine were also determined. For the first time, myocardial carnitine levels have been measured in endomyocardial biopsies from 13 normal human hearts (control values: 9.9 +/- 0.8 nmol/mg noncollagen protein). In comparison with these control values, total myocardial carnitine was significantly reduced in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1 +/- 0.5 nmol/mg noncollagen protein, p less than 0.0001), and CHF of other origins (6.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/mg noncollagen protein, p less than 0.02). Free myocardial carnitine concentrations in dilated cardiomyopathy (4.6 +/- 0.4 nmol/mg noncollagen protein) and CHF of different origin (4.4 +/- 0.5 nmol/mg noncollagen protein) were also significantly different from control values (control values: 9.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg noncollagen protein, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.005 for both groups). The loss of free and total myocardial carnitine was comparable in dilated cardiomyopathy and CHF due to other diseases. In contrast, plasma free and total carnitine levels in the CHF patients were significantly elevated (67 +/- 5.5 mumol/liter, control values 41 +/- 3.7 mumol/liter, p less than 0.005). Alterations in myocardial carnitine metabolism represent nonspecific biochemical markers in CHF with yet unknown consequences for myocardial function.
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<H4>Carnitine transport: pathophysiology and metabolism of known molecular defects</H4><I>
Tein I. Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.</I><BR>
Early-onset dilatative and/or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with episodic hypoglycaemic coma and very low serum and tissue concentrations of carnitine should alert the clinician to the probability of the plasmalemmal high-affinity carnitine transporter defect. The diagnosis can be established by demonstration of impaired carnitine uptake in cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblasts and confirmed by mutation analysis of the human OCTN2 gene in the affected child and obligate heterozygote parents. The institution of high-dose oral carnitine supplementation reverses the pathology in this otherwise lethal autosomal recessive disease of childhood, and carnitine therapy from birth in prospectively screened siblings may altogether prevent the development of the clinical phenotype. Heterozygotes may be at risk for cardiomyopathy in later adult life, particularly in the presence of additional risk factors such as hypertension and competitive pharmacological agents. OCTN2 belongs to a family of organic cation/carnitine transporters that function primarily in the elimination of cationic drugs and other xenobiotics in kidney, intestine, liver and placenta. The high- and low-affinity human carnitine transporters, OCTN2 and OCTN1, are multifunctional polyspecific organic cation transporters; therefore, defects in these transporters may have widespread implications for the absorption and/or elimination of a number of key pharmacological agents such as cephalosporins, verapamil, quinidine and valproic acid. A third organic/cation carnitine transporter with high specificity for carnitine, Octn3, has been cloned in mice. The juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mouse serves as an excellent clinical, biochemical and molecular model for the high-affinity carnitine transporter OCTN2 defect and is due to a spontaneous point mutation in the murine Octn2 gene on mouse chromosome 11, which is syntenic to the human locus at 5q31 that harbours the human OCTN2 gene.
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<H4>Heart metabolic disturbances in cardiovascular diseases</H4><I>
Carvajal K, Moreno-Sanchez R. Departament de Bioquimica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico City, Mexico.</I><BR>
Myocardial function depends on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supplied by oxidation of several substrates. In the adult heart, this energy is obtained primarily from fatty acid oxidation through oxidative phosphorylation. However, the energy source may change depending on several factors such as substrate availability, energy demands, oxygen supply, and metabolic condition of the individual. Surprisingly, the role of energy metabolism in development of cardiac diseases has not been extensively studied. For instance, alterations in glucose oxidation and transport developed in diabetic heart may compromise myocardial performance under conditions in which ATP provided by glycolysis is relevant, such as in ischemia and reperfusion. In some cardiac diseases such as ischemic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, hypertrophy, and dilated cardiomyopathy, ATP generation is diminished by derangement of fatty acid delivery to mitochondria and by alteration of certain key enzymes of energy metabolism. Shortage of some co-factors such as L-carnitine and creatine also leads to energy depletion. Creatine kinase system and other mitochondrial enzymes are also affected. Initial attempts to modulate cardiac energy metabolism by use of drugs or supplements as a therapeutic approach to heart disease are described.
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<H4>Effects of L-propionyl-carnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris</H4><I>
Bartels GL; Remme WJ; Pillay M; Schönfeld DH; Kruijssen DA Am J Cardiol: 74:2:125-30 (1994)</I><BR>
To identify the effect of L-propionylcarnitine (LPC) on ischemia, 31 fasting, untreated male patients with left coronary artery disease were studied during 2 identical pacing stress tests 45 minutes before (atrial pacing test I:APST I:) and 15 minutes after (APST II) administration of 15 mg/kg of LPC or placebo. Hemodynamic, metabolic, and nuclear angiographic variables were studied before, during, and for 10 minutes after pacing. After LPC administration, arterial total carnitine levels increased from 47 +/- 1.7 mumol/liter (control) to 730 +/- 30 mumol/liter. Hemodynamic and metabolic variables were comparable in LPC and placebo during APSI I, and reproducible in placebo during both tests. Although LPC did not affect myocardial oxygen demand and supply, it diminished myocardial ischemia, indicated by a significant 12% and 50% reduction in ST-segment depression and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, respectively, during APST II. Moreover, during APST II, left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 18% (p < 0.05 vs APST I). Furthermore, LPC improved recovery of myocardial function after pacing, with a reduction in the time to peak filling and a 21% increase in both peak ejection and filling rates 10 minutes after pacing (all p < 0.05). Thus, LPC prevents ischemia-induced ventricular dysfunction, not by affecting the myocardial oxygen supply-demand ratio but as a result of its intrinsic metabolic actions, increasing pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and flux through the citric acid cycle. Because it is well tolerated, it may be a valuable alternative or addition to available antiischemic therapy.
<H4>Carnitine metabolism and deficit--when supplementation is necessary?</H4><I>
Evangeliou A, Vlassopoulos D. Neurology Dept., Creta's Medical School, A. Fleming Hospital, Athens, Greece.</I><BR>
Carnitine is an ammo acid derivative found in high energy demanding tissues (skeletal muscles, myocardium, the liver and the suprarenal glands). It is essential for the intermediary metabolism of fatty acids. Carnitine is indispensable for beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria but also regulates CoA concentration and removal of the produced acyl groups. AcylCoAs act as restraining factor for several enzymes participating in intermediary metabolism. Transformation of AcylCoA into acylcarnitine is an important system for removing the toxic acyl groups. Although primary deficiency is unusual, depletion due to secondary causes, such as a disease or a medication side effect, can occur. Primary carnitine deficiency is caused by a defect in plasma membrane carnitine transporter in muscle and kidneys. Secondary carnitine deficiency is associated with several inborn errors of metabolism and acquired medical or iatrogenic conditions, for example in patients under valproate and zidovuline treatment. In cirrhosis and chronic renal failure, carnitine biosynthesis is impaired or carnitine is lost during hemodialysis. Other chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, heart failure, Alzheimer disease may cause carnitine deficiency also observed in conditions with increased catabolism as in critical illness. Preterm neonates develop carnitine deficiency due to impaired proximal renal tubule carnitine re-absorption and immature carnitine biosynthesis. Carnitine stabilizes the cellular membrane and raises red blood cell osmotic resistance but has no metabolic influence on lipids in dialysis patients. L-Carnitine has been administered in senile dementia, metabolic nerve diseases, in HIV infection, tuberculosis, myopathies, cardiomyopathies, renal failure anemia and included in baby foods and milk.
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<H4>Novel OCTN2 mutations: no genotype-phenotype correlations: early carnitine therapy prevents cardiomyopathy </H4><I>
Lamhonwah AM, Olpin SE, Pollitt RJ, Vianey-Saban C, Divry P, Guffon N, Besley GT, Onizuka R, De Meirleir LJ, Cvitanovic-Sojat L, Baric I, Dionisi-Vici C, Fumic K, Maradin M, Tein I. Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.</I><BR>
Primary systemic carnitine deficiency or carnitine uptake defect (OMIM 212140) is a potentially lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive infantile-onset cardiomyopathy, weakness, and recurrent hypoglycemic hypoketotic encephalopathy, which is highly responsive to L-carnitine therapy. Molecular analysis of the SLC22A5 (OCTN2) gene, encoding the high-affinity carnitine transporter, was done in 11 affected individuals by direct nucleotide sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from all 10 exons. Carnitine uptake (at Km of 5 microM) in cultured skin fibroblasts ranged from 1% to 20% of normal controls. Eleven mutations (delF23, N32S, and one 11-bp duplication in exon 1; R169W in exon 3; a donor splice mutation [IVS3+1 G > A] in intron 3; frameshift mutations in exons 5 and 6; Y401X in exon 7; T440M, T468R and S470F in exon 8 ) are described. There was no correlation between residual uptake and severity of clinical presentation, suggesting that the wide phenotypic variability is likely related to exogenous stressors exacerbating carnitine deficiency. Most importantly, strict compliance with carnitine from birth appears to prevent the phenotype. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Lid geworden op: Di Mar 08, 2011 1:09 am

Berichtdoor Beebs » Di Mar 08, 2011 1:32 am

This paper shows how medications in this a fluoroquinolone antibiotic can impair metabolism pathway of L Carnitine. Many drugs in the same category can alter this pathway.

Mechanism of the inhibitory effect of zwitterionic drugs (levofloxacin and grepafloxacin) on carnitine transporter (OCTN2) in Caco-2 cells.

Hirano T, Yasuda S, Osaka Y, Kobayashi M, Itagaki S, Iseki K.

Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12-jo, Nishi-6-chome, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that L-carnitine exists as a zwitterion and that member of the OCTN family play an important role in its transport. The aims of this study were to characterize L-carnitine transport in the intestine by using Caco-2 cells and to elucidate the effects of levofloxacin (LVFX) and grepafloxacin (GPFX), which are zwitterionic drugs, on L-carnitine uptake. Kinetic analysis showed that the half-saturation Na+ concentration, Hill coefficient and Km value of L-carnitine uptake in Caco-2 cells were 10.3 +/- 4.5 mM, 1.09 and 8.0 +/- 1.0 microM, respectively, suggesting that OCTN2 mainly transports L-carnitine. LVFX and GPFX have two pKa values and the existence ratio of their zwitterionic forms is higher under a neutral condition than under an acidic condition. Experiments on the inhibitory effect of LVFX and GPFX on L-carnitine uptake showed that LVFX and GPFX inhibited L-carnitine uptake more strongly at pH 7.4 than at pH 5.5. It was concluded that the zwitterionic form of drugs plays an important role in inhibition of OCTN2 function.
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