Cardiomyopathy and Growth Hormone Releasers: Arginine

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Cardiomyopathy and Growth Hormone Releasers: Arginine

Bericht door Willy » zo aug 24, 2003 4:37 pm

Abstracts on Arginine:
http://www.lef.org/prod_hp/abstracts/php-ab037.html
<H4>L-arginine reduces heart rate and improves hemodynamics in severe congestive heart failure</H4><I>
Bocchi EA, Vilella de Moraes AV, Esteves-Filho A, Bacal F, Auler JO, Carmona MJ, Bellotti G, Ramires AF. Heart Institute, Medical School of Sao Paulo University, Brazil. </I><BR>
BACKGROUND: Stimulated endothelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated vasodilation and conduit artery distensibility are impaired in congestive heart failure (CHF). L-arginine could have a potentially beneficial role in CHF, acting through the nitric oxide (NO)-L-arginine pathway or by growth hormone increment. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of L-arginine on heart rate, hemodynamics, and left ventricular (LV) function in CHF. METHODS: In seven patients (aged 39 +/- 8 years) with CHF, we obtained the following parameters using echocardiography and an LV Millar Mikro-Tip catheter simultaneously under four conditions: basal, during NO inhalation (40 ppm), in basal condition before L-arginine infusion, and after L-arginine intravenous infusion (mean dose 30.4 +/- 1.9 g).
RESULTS: Nitric oxide inhalation increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure from 25 +/- 9 to 31 +/- 7 mmHg (p < 0.05), but did not change echocardiographic variables or LV contractility by elastance determination. L-arginine decreased heart rate (from 88 +/- 15 to 80 +/- 16 beats/min, p<0.005), mean systemic arterial pressure (from 84 +/- 17 to 70 +/- 18 mmHg, p < 0.007), and systemic vascular resistance (from 24 +/- 8 to 15 +/- 6 Wood units, p<0.003). L-arginine increased right atrial pressure (from 7 +/- 2 to 10 +/- 3 mmHg, p<0.04), cardiac output (from 3.4 +/- 0.7 to 4.1 +/- 0.8 l/min, p < 0.009), and stroke volume (from 40 +/- 9 to 54 +/- 14 ml, p < 0.008). The ratios of pulmonary vascular resistance to systemic vascular resistance at baseline and during NO inhalation were 0.09 and 0.075, respectively, and with L-arginine this increased from 0.09 to 0.12.
CONCLUSION: L-arginine exerted no effect on contractility; however, by acting on systemic vascular resistance it improved cardiac performance. L-arginine showed a negative chronotropic effect. The possible beneficial effect of L-arginine on reversing endothelial dysfunction in CHF without changing LV contractility should be the subject of further investigations.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract
<H4>Arginine nutrition and cardiovascular function</H4><I>
Wu G, Meininger CJ. Department of Animal Science and Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, 77843, USA. </I><BR>
L-Arginine (Arg) is the substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the endothelium-derived relaxing factor essential for regulating vascular tone and hemodynamics. NO stimulates angiogenesis, but inhibits endothelin-1 release, leukocyte adhesion, platelet aggregation, superoxide generation, the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and monocyte chemotactic peptides, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Arg exerts its vascular actions also through NO-independent effects, including membrane depolarization, syntheses of creatine, proline and polyamines, secretion of insulin, growth hormone, glucagon and prolactin, plasmin generation and fibrinogenolysis, superoxide scavenging and inhibition of leukocyte adhesion to nonendothelial matrix. Compelling evidence shows that enteral or parenteral administration of Arg reverses endothelial dysfunction associated with major cardiovascular risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity/insulin resistance and aging) and ameliorates many common cardiovascular disorders (coronary and peripheral arterial disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and heart failure). Dietary Arg supplementation may represent a potentially novel nutritional strategy for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract
<H4>Arginine: Clinical potential of a semi-essential amino</H4><I>
Appleton J. Department chair, National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, OR 97201, USA. jappleton@ncnm.edu</I><BR>
Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid, is involved in numerous areas of human biochemistry, including ammonia detoxification, hormone secretion, and immune modulation. Arginine is also well known as a precursor to nitric oxide (NO), a key component of endothelial-derived relaxing factor, an endogenous messenger molecule involved in a variety of endothelium-dependent physiological effects in the cardiovascular system. Because of arginine's NO-stimulating effects, it can be utilized in therapeutic regimens for angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, hypertension, coronary heart disease, preeclampsia, intermittent claudication, and erectile dysfunction. In addition, arginine has been studied in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, athletic performance, burns and trauma, cancer, diabetes and syndrome X, gastrointestinal diseases, male and female infertility, interstitial cystitis, immunomodulation, and senile dementia. Toxicity, dosage considerations, and contraindications are also reviewed.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract
<H4>Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in adults</H4><I>
Korbonits M, Besser M. Department of Endocrinology, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK. </I><BR>
The potential effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults and the importance of GH secretion in adult life have only been recognized and documented recently. It has been suggested that GH-deficient adults may have premature mortality, abnormalities in body composition and bone density with impaired physical performance and psychological well-being, which are sometimes improved by GH replacement. It is essential, therefore, to establish reliable standards to define GH deficiency in adults. Patients with possible GH deficiency often have primary pituitary or hypothalamic disorders or have undergone surgery or radiotherapy, and thus show evidence of a failure of one of the other pituitary hormones. Several biochemical approaches have been studied to define GH deficiency in the adult and no universal consensus has yet been reached. The most widely established criterion is the peak serum GH concentration achieved during a provocative test, usually the insulin tolerance test (ITT), or following other pharmacological stimuli (e.g. glucagon, arginine, clonidine or GH-releasing factor) but, alternatively, a more physiological stimulus (such as sleep, fasting or exercise) has been used. Spontaneous circulating levels of hormones of the GH axis [24-hour integrated GH concentration, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or IGF-binding protein-3] have been used in the diagnosis of childhood GH deficiency. They have been tested in adults as well but seem to have a more limited role. There are several factors complicating the evaluation of these results. Basal and stimulated GH and IGF-I levels decline with age and with obesity, levels tend to be higher in females and are dependent on nutritional and physical status. The ITT potentially has some risk attached, e.g. in the presence of ischaemic heart disease, but it has proved to be safe in general when used in specialized departments. Other tests are less reliable; releasing hormone tests only assess the readily releasable stores within the pituitary and not the physiological secretory status. The 'cut-off' point for the definition of subnormal responses ideally needs to be set for each provocative test, for each age group, for each degree of obesity and for both sexes. There is considerable variability in GH assays among different laboratories, which makes it difficult to compare hormone levels. The reproducibility of provocative tests can also be variable. An advantage of the hypoglycaemia and glucagon tests is that they allow simultaneous assessment of the adrenocorticotropic hormone reserve.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract
<H4>Effect of digoxin on the somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) alone or combined with arginine in normal young volunteers</H4><I>
Broglio F, Benso A, Gottero C, Vito LD, Granata R, Arvat E, Bobbio M, Trevi G, Ghigo E. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turin, Italy. </I><BR>
BACKGROUND: The activity of the GH/IGF-I axis, known to play a major role in myocardial structure and function, has been reported to be altered in patients with chronic heart failure. AIM AND DESIGN OF THE STUDY: In order to evaluate the possibility that clinically used cardioactive drugs may exert neuroendocrine influences on somatotroph secretion, we studied the effects of pretreatment with enalapril (20 mg/day orally for 3 days), furosemide (20 mg i.v. as a bolus at -5 minutes) or digoxin (0.25 mg orally 4x/day for 3 days) on the GH response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) (1.0 microg/ kg i.v. as a bolus at 0 minutes) in 12 healthy male adults (age [mean +/- SEM] 30.2 +/- 1.4 years; BMI 22.7 +/- 0.7 kg/ m2). In a subgroup of 8 subjects the same study was performed testing the GH response to GHRH + arginine (ARG; 0.5 g/kg i.v. from 0 to + 30 minutes).
RESULTS The GH response to GHRH (1,304.1 +/- 248-5 microg/l/h) was not modified by enalapril (1,368.7 +/- 171.2 microg/l/h) or by furosemide (1,269.3 +/- 185.2 microg/l/h) but was significantly blunted by digoxin (613.6 +/- 73.2 microg/l/h, P < 0.05). On the other hand digoxin, enalapril and furosemide did not modify the GH response to GHRH +ARG.
CONCLUSIONS: Digoxin, but not enalapril or furosemide, inhibits the GH response to GHRH in normal subjects. The blunting effect of digoxin on the GHRH-induced GH response is counteracted by arginine. These findings show that digoxin possesses an inhibitory effect on somatotroph secretion that may be mediated at the hypothalamic level.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract
Improvement of cardiac output and liver blood flow and reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance by intravenous infusion of L-arginine during the early reperfusion period in pig liver transplantation
Langle F, Steininger R, Waldmann E, Grunberger T, Benditte H, Mittlbock M, Soliman T, Schindl M, Windberger U, Muhlbacher F, Roth E. Department of Surgery, University of Vienna, Austria.
BACKGROUND: The release of liver arginase after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) causes a deficiency of L-arginine and nitrite in the plasma. This deficiency is possibly related to pulmonary hypertension and reduced hepatic blood flow, which are commonly observed in the immediate reperfusion period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of L-arginine supplementation on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters during liver reperfusion after OLT in pigs. METHODS: Thirteen pig OLTs (control group, n=6; arginine group, n=7) were performed by a standard technique. Cold ischemic time was 20 hr. L-Arginine was infused at a dosage of 500 mg/kg body weight into the donor pigs (30 min before liver explantation) and also into the recipients (over a period of 3 hr from the beginning of the reperfusion period). At the end of the experimental study, the pigs were killed with an overdose of potassium.
RESULTS: In the control group, liver revascularization increased plasma arginase concentrations (+615%) and reduced plasma levels of L-arginine (-87%), nitrite (-82%), and nitrate (-53%). Infusion of L-arginine increased plasma levels of L-arginine from 94+/-21 micromol/L to 1674+/-252 micromol/L (P<0.001), L-ornithine from 46+/-8 micromol/L to 2215+/-465 micromol/L (P<0.001), and L-citrulline from 58+/-8 micromol/L to 116+/-34 micromol/L (P<0.001), but had no effect on plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate. Administration of L-arginine in the donor pigs did not produce any systemic or organ-specific hemodynamic alterations. Infusion of L-arginine into the recipient pigs improved cardiac performance (increase in heart rate [+61%, P=0.017] and cardiac index [+53%, P=0.005], reduction in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [-54%, P=0.014]). Moreover L-arginine infusion increased oxygen consumption (+65%, P=0.003), reduced pulmonary vascular resistance index (P=0.001), stimulated portal venous blood flow (P=0.014), and elevated body temperature during the reperfusion period (P=0.007).
CONCLUSIONS: From these data, we conclude that the infusion of L-arginine during OLT improves the hemodynamic performance of the heart, lung, and liver.
Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/quer ... t=Abstract

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